An Empirical Modification of Nucleation Theory and Its Application to Boiling Heat Transfer Page: 7 of 38
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AN EMPIRICAL MODIFICATION OF NUCLEATION THEORY AND
ITS APPLICATION TO BOILING HEAT TRANSFER
Yan Po Chang
From the equations of momentum and of energy and
by the aid of established experimental phenomena, the prob-
lem of heat transfer in nucleate boiling is reduced to one
consisting of three parameters: the first represents the
Stanton number, the second bubble growth, and the third nu-
cleation. With an empirical modification of the nucleation
theoryas developed by Volmer and Eyringfrom the Maxwell-
Boltzman distribution law, an equation is obtained for the
heat transfer in vigorous boiling:
=C exp -[ --r(~ ~ Ppsm
Pc, ps NA(KTs)3/z pn3 icTs PvX .
where m = 1 and 2 for organic and inorganic liquids (includ-
ing liquid metals), respectively. The symbols C and n repre-
sent dimensionless numbers whose values depend onthe liquid
and surface condition of the heater. Application of this equa-
tion is restricted to the following cases of boiling:
1. saturatedpool boiling from either smooth or rough
2. saturated and subcooled forced convection boiling
from rough surfaces; and
3. early stage of saturated and subcooled forced con-
vection boiling from smooth surfaces.
The validity of this equation for vigorous boiling has
been tested for more than a dozen of different liquids under
different pressures and different surface conditions. By in-
troducing an eddy thermal diffusivity, a general equation has
been obtained, valid for the whole range of nucleate boiling.
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Chang, Y. P. An Empirical Modification of Nucleation Theory and Its Application to Boiling Heat Transfer, report, February 1, 1961; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc863296/m1/7/: accessed May 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.