An Empirical Modification of Nucleation Theory and Its Application to Boiling Heat Transfer Page: 26 of 38
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9. VIGOROUS BOILING OF WATER AND OF MERCURY
Cichelli and Bonilla(24) boiled water from a slightly dirty chromium-
plated surface under pressures from 14.7 to 1000 pounds per square inch.
Addoms(Z9) used a platinum wire and boiled water under pressures up to
2000 pounds per s uare inch. Tests at one atmospheric pressure have been
made by Jakob, (30) Gunther,(7) Lyon et al.,(31) and many others.
To compare the predicted results from Eq. (22) with experimental
values of the above mentioned investigators, the modification factor Y is,
first of all, to be determined. Calculated values of X and Y are shown in
Table II in the appendix. It is seen that to render the Maxwell-Boltzmann
distribution law useful for practical application, n must be of the order of
5 x 10-7 and m must be larger than unity. After a series of calculations for
other inorganic liquids, it is found that the proper value of m is 2.0. Thus
for the boiling of inorganic liquids, Eq. (22) becomes
q = Cpc T 3/t e -nXY2 (24)
The above mentioned test results can be expressed with fair accu-
racy by Eq. (24) with values of n and C as shown in Table II. Comparison
between predicted and test results are shown in Figs. 12, 13, 14 and 15.
VALUES OF C AND n IN EQ. (24) FOR WATER BOILING
FROM VARIOUS HEATING SURFACES
Surface Investigators C x 104 n x 106
Slightly dirty, chromium-
plated plate Cichelli-Bonilla 4.2
Platinum wire Addoms 4.85 1
Stainless steel plate Jakob 4.1
Stainless steel annulus McAdams 3.42 1
Copper tube Piret-Isbin 3.21
Stainless steel tube Lyon et al. 13.00 2
Test data for boiling of liquid metals shows considerable scatter.
Katz(32) stressed the importance of wettability. Lyon et al.,(31) con-
sidered that scatter in data comes not only from the probable errors in
measurement, but also from the unsteady-state nature of the boiling phe-
nomena. Tests of Lyon et al., for boiling of mercury containing 0.02%
magnesium and 0.0001% titanium are reproduced in Fig. 15, and can be
expressed fairly well by Eq. (24) with values of n and C as follows:
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Chang, Y. P. An Empirical Modification of Nucleation Theory and Its Application to Boiling Heat Transfer, report, February 1, 1961; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc863296/m1/26/: accessed May 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.