The Common Mole of the Eastern United States Page: Title Page
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US.DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Contribution from the Bureau of Biological Survey, Henry W. Henshaw, Chief.
May 14, 1914.
THE COMMON MOLE OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES.
By THEO. H. SCHEFFER, Assistant Biologist.
Within the boundaries of the United States are five recognized
groups of true moles. Two of these are confined to the Pacific coast,
and three are distributed over the section east of the one hundredth
meridian extending from Canada to the Gulf. There are no moles in
the Rocky Mountain region, and their range is very restricted in the
Great Basin and on the Great Plains. The common mole 1 may be
found almost everywhere south of the New England States, New
York, Michigan, and central Wisconsin, except in the mountain
regions. In the latter districts and in the greater part of Pennsyl-
vania, New York, and New England the common mole is replaced
by the star-nosed mole 2 and Brewer's mole.3
The general distribution of the mole seems to depend very largely
on the condition of the soil and on the humidity of the climate.
Moles are absent altogether from our arid regions, and where the
prairies of the West merge gradually into the plains they are found
only along water courses. In these regions of deficient rainfall the
ground is so dry and hard the greater part of the year as to be wholly
unsuited to the existence of earthworms and the various insect larvae
upon which the mole depends for subsistence. The mole is most abun-
dant in moist, rich soils along streams, particularly if these situations
are somewhat shaded.
The mole is so seldom seen, even by those who are familiar with its
work, that it is often confused with other small creatures, particu-
larly the shrew, the vole or meadow mouse, and the pocket gopher.
I Scalopus aquaticus. 2 Condylura cristata. a Parascalops breweri.
NoTE.-This bulletin treats of the mole found east of the one hundredth meridian. It contains an
account of its habits, the nature of the damages committed by it, and the methods employed for its
destruction. It also seeks to remote some popular misconceptions concerning this little animal. It is of
interest to gardeners, lawn makers, caretakers of parks and cemeteries, etc.
34909-Bull. 583-14 ----1
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Scheffer, Theodore H. The Common Mole of the Eastern United States, pamphlet, 1914; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85793/m1/1/: accessed June 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.