Special Issue for the 9th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere Page: 2 of 8
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gasoline and diesel vehicle particulate emissions and their relative contribution to
radiative forcing was studied by Strawa et al. (Strawa et al., accepted).
Characterization and source apportionment of carbonaceous particles continues to be an
issue of concentrated research. Trompetter, et al. (Trompetter et al., accepted) determined
factors influencing ambient concentrations of carbonaceous particulate matter within a
New Zealand air shed. The results of Cerqueira et al., (Cerqueira et al., accepted)
indicated that elemental carbon (BC)2 is removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition
less efficiently than water insoluble organic carbon (WIOC), and in turn this species is
removed less efficiently than sulfate. Jia et al., (Jia et al., accepted) determined that
saccharides can be used as tracers for the seasonal change of carbohydrate production and
utilization in a local ecosystem. Lin et al. (Lin et al., accepted) found that HULIS
comprised a significant fraction of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in an ambient
aerosol in rural south China and in fresh biomass burning aerosols. Sources are postulated
to include formation in cloud droplets, secondary formation through heterogeneous
reactions and primary emissions from biomass burning. Ram et al. (Ram and Sarin,
accepted) provide the first comprehensive data set on atmospheric abundance of EC,
organic carbon (OC), and WSOC over the Indo-Gangetic Plain in northern India.
Improved methodologies to better characterize carbonaceous particles is also a topic of
research. This special issue contains several papers related to new techniques. Proton
backscatter methodology was explored by Castaneda et al. (Castaneda et al., accepted) to
measure carbon and oxygen concentrations in particulate matter. Vander Wal, et al.
(Vander Wal et al., accepted) explored the use of high-resolution transmission electron
microscopy (HRTEM) images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data to
identify the sources of carbonaceous particles. Using gas chromatograph - mass
spectroscopy (GC-MS) and gas chromatograph - flame ionization detection (GC-FID)
techniques, Kundu et al., (Kundu et al., accepted) showed that stable carbon and nitrogen
isotopes can explain biomass burning mechanism, and showed evidence of the chemical
evolution of aerosols during an intense biomass burning period in Rond6nia, Brazil
(Amazonia). Based on particle-resolved model simulations Riemer et al. (Riemer et al.,
accepted) present a new method for calculating the aging time-scale of particles
The research presentations and discussions at the 9t ICCPA demonstrated that the state
of knowledge of atmospheric carbonaceous particles and an awareness of their
importance has increased dramatically since the Is ICCPA in 1978. It was also apparent
that more work needs to be done if we are to fully understand the climate and air quality
impacts of carbonaceous particles in the environment. Thus it is appropriate to conclude
this introduction with a brief summary of open questions and research needs in the
carbonaceous aerosol community.
2 This aerosol component is variously termed 'elemental', 'graphitic', or 'black' carbon depending partly
on the measurement method. The inconsistent use of these terms and their precise definitions has been the
subject of ongoing debate since the first Carbon Conference and represents one of the major hurdles that
this research community has not yet successfully resolved. For consistency in this preface, we will use the
term elemental carbon although several papers in the special issue use the terms black or graphitic carbon.
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Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W. & Puxbaum, H. Special Issue for the 9th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, article, December 11, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847095/m1/2/: accessed January 15, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.