T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter Page: 3 of 19
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MOU for Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter
This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
(Fermilab) and the experimenters of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA),
Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Texas A&M University (TAMU) who have committed
to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Test Beam Facility
The memorandum is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget
estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating
institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is
recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will
necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required
adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents.
Description of Detector and Tests:
The present experiments at the BNL-RHIC facility are evolving towards physics goals which require
the detection of medium energy electromagnetic particles (photons, electrons, neutral pions, eta
mesons, etc.), especially at forward angles. New detectors will place increasing demands on energy
resolution, hadron rejection and two-photon resolution and will require large area, high performance
electromagnetic calorimeters in a variety of geometries. In the immediate future, either RHIC or
JLAB will propose a facility upgrade (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with physics goals such as
electron-heavy ion collisions (or p-A collisions) with a wide range of calorimeter requirements. An
R&D program based at Brookhaven National Laboratory has awarded our group funding of
approximately $110,000 to develop new types of calorimeters for EIC experiments.
The UCLA group is developing a method to manufacture very flexible and cost-effective, yet high
quality calorimeters based on scintillating fibers and tungsten powder. The design and features of the
calorimeter can be briefly stated as follows: an arbitrarily large number of small diameter fibers
(<0.5mm) are assembled as a matrix and held rigidly in place by a set of precision screens inside an
empty container. The container is then back-filled with tungsten powder, compacted on a vibrating
table and infused with epoxy under vacuum. The container is then removed. The resulting sub-
modules are extremely uniform and achieve roughly the density of pure Lead. The sub-modules are
stacked together to achieve a final detector of the desired shape. There is no dead space between
sub-modules and the fibers can be in an accordion geometry bent to prevent 'channeling' of the
particles due to accidental alignment of their track with the module axis. This technology has the
advantage of being modular and inexpensive to the point where the construction work may be
divided among groups the size of typical university physics departments.
This test run is a proof-of-principle and will allow the experiment to improve the design and
performance of the final detectors. The experimenters have constructed prototypes of three different
designs in order to investigate the characteristics of practical devices such as uniformity, linearity,
longitudinal and transverse shower shapes.
The first design is an array of 4x4 modules intended as a prototype for a practical device to be
installed within two years in the STAR experimental hall. The modules are a combination of a
spaghetti calorimeter and an accordion (hence "spacordion"). Each sub-module is 1.44cm x 1.44cm
xl5cm and constructed individually. The second design is a prototype of 4 sub-modules constructed
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Trentalange, Stephen; Tsai, Oleg; Igo, George; Huang, Huan; Pan, Yu Xi; Dunkelberger, Jay et al. T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter, report, November 16, 2011; Batavia, Illinois. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847035/m1/3/: accessed March 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.