Induction Linac Pulsers Page: 4 of 4
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The radar systems mentioned earlier which were the basis for much of the pulser
technology would operate for of the order of 1000 hours and got
(103 h)(3.6x103)(103pps) 3.6x109 pulses.
The SLAC linac, at an earlier tally, had ~101" pulses on similar modulators
The Bevatron linac, at 2 pps, had 109 pulses
The Astron Injector, at 5 pps, had 10 8 pulses
The ATA Induction linac had 10 7 pulses, including a burst rate of 1000 pps
The ERA Injector Induction linac had 5x106 pulses at 1/3 pps
The HIF machines, the 2 MV Cs Injector, SBTE, and MBE-4 all had -5x105 pulses each,
at pulse rates of <1 pps, and a few thousand pulses per day. Most of the induction linac
rep rates were limited by power supplies and data taking limits.
The standard practice in accelerators is to make a repeatable beam and measure its
properties such as position, profile, transverse emittance, and longitudinal emittance by
scanning the beam in small steps with a pair of transverse slits, parallel and
perpendicular, and a Faraday cup behind to second slit to measure current for the
transverse phase space, and to vary an energy spectrometer over many pulses to measure
the longitudinal phase space. Other techniques exist, but the above is typical. Starting at
the source, the above set of measurements is repeated along the accelerator. During this
entire measurement sequence the beam is expected to be repeatable and most or all of the
equipment continue operating.
This is markedly different from "single shot" devices, where all of the information must
be obtained on one pulse because the next one might be different.
The induction linacs for HIF are therefore well along towards development of a driver
because the rep rates and total numbers of pulses in some cases already approach the
driver requirements. The early radar experience is particularly relevant because the
common radars used a PFN, a switch, and a pulse transformer, essentially the ingredients
of an induction linac. The MIT Rad Lab group working on pulsers reached about 50
persons, and estimating about 10 such groups in the country, such as the Bell Labs and in
many of the private companies, the total comes to a few thousand-man years of effort.
Adding to this perhaps 5 people at a dozen labs for the next 60 years gives a total of
perhaps five thousand man-years. Our group added to the very short pulse, short rise
time, <1 ns jitter, >1 GW area of the modulator parameter space.
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Faltens, Andris. Induction Linac Pulsers, report, January 7, 2011; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc843641/m1/4/: accessed July 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.