Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 71
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political entity was formed. Since then it has been plagued by
political instability, resulting in numerous changes in the govern-
ment. Examples are numerous with the most famous coup d'etat occurring
in 1954, with the overthrow of the Arbenz government. For an excellent
description of the history of the political system of Guatemala, see
As mentioned earlier, Guatemala's population is comprised primarily
of two ethnic groups: Indians and Lad;Los. If used in the broadest
sense, Ladino simply refers to that part of the population which does
not adhere to traditional Indian beliefs or wear Indian dress and
which speaks Spanish as their native language. This term no longer
implies genetic inheritance as it once did, but rather socioculturally
defined ethnicity, as pointed cut by Carmack (1970: 88):
It should also be clear that the distinction between the
two is no longer "racial", for many Indians have become
Ladinos; indeed, whole villages formerly known to be
Indian have become Ladino (a process known as "trans-
Historically, though, the term Ladino has been used to designate a
racial group composed of mixed Indian and Spanish ancestry (Dombrowski
et al. 1970). Various definitions of Indian and Ladino can be found
in Adams (1970), Roberts (1973) and Tax (1941).
Linguistically, aside from the official national language of
Spanish, there are 17 major Indian languages spoken, including Quiche,
Cakchiquel, ~Im ;andl Kelchi. 'rThese 17 Indian dialects correspondl
consistently with the different major Indian sub-cultures.
Among the Indians, there are several agricultural rituals which
have probably been practiced for a thousand years, though significantly
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/84/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.