Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 70
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Of that 5,160,221 people, 1,878,198 reside in urban areas while the
rest (3,282,030) live in the rural areas. Nearly 60 percent of that
population of Guatemala is classified as rural, pointing out that
Guatemala, though experiencing rapid urbanization (approximately 1+
percent net rural-to-urban migration annually), is presently a rural-
oriented country (World Bank 1981).
In the 1973 census, the population of Guatemala City was estimated
to be about 890, 026 (currently estimated to be about 1.2 million).
This figure represents 47.3 percent of the total urban population and
almost 20 percent of the total national population. This demographic
distribution has been described by Roberts (1973) and Smith (1976) as
being an urban primate system. (See Table 1 and Figure 1). As a
result of this hyper-urbanization, a significant proportion of the
national resources are funneled into Guatemala City, creating an im-
balance in the social, economic and political systems.
Guatemala's history extends back more than 2,000 years, the evi-
dence of which is impressively exhibited in the abundant monumental
architecture found at such archaeological sites as Tikal, Kaminaljuyu
and Iximche, to name but a few. The descendents of these ancient
Mayan Indians still comprise a significant part of Guatemala's heri-
tage. It was in 1523 that Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant under Cortes,
with 300 Mexican allies invaded the land now known as Guatemala.
This colony, which originally encompassed all of present-day Central
America, was called the Kingdom of Guatemala. It was not until 1821
that Central America declared independence from Spain and it was
not until 1839 that the Republic of Guatemala as an independent
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/83/: accessed October 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.