Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 28
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However, the genetic, uterine and nutritional effects as defined
by Garn et al. (1979) and Chen (1979) are only a part of a broader
biological picture. Other processes such as disease and the endocrine
influences must be considered; these acting directly on or indirectly
through a synergistic action with nutrition. Therefore, the following
is a brief discussion of these two factors.
Because of the complex relationship and interaction between disease
and growth, it is best considered separately from the other factors.
There are two classes of disease which are critical in the growth pro-
cess: 1) congenital and 2) infectious disease. Within each of these,
there are two types of diseases that directly affect growth. One
affects growth without regard to nutrition and the other affects it
either by acting upon or in concert or synergistically with nutrition
(Jelliffe and Jelliffe 1979). Certain congenital diseases, those
which are genetically determined, directly shape the growth patterns
of their victims, while others impede the nutritional process, for
instance, by prohibiting the absorption and/or utilization of certain
nutrients. An example of the former is dwarfism and the latter,
Phenylketonuria (PKU). On the other hand, an infectious disease such
as polio can disrupt the growth process without regard to the nutri-
tional state (Scrimshaw and Gordon 1968), whereas enterocolitis, also
an infectious disease, usually alters the nutrition of an individual
over time such that it negatively affects growth (Scrimshaw et al.
1968). This points out the complex interaction disease has with growth
and nutrition, a relationship complicated by possible synergistic
action. For example, measles in a poorly nourished child may result
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/41/: accessed January 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.