Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 26
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"grade" of malnutrition is not evident from the results. As a field
method in developing countries, there are basically two problems:
refrigeration and, usually, inability to get samples. Generally, re-
frigeration, necessary to store the blood samples, is simply not
available and, even if it were, most people are not willing to allow
someone to extract blood from their bodies.
At this point in the discussion, it should be noted that when
describing the nutritional state there are basically five different
levels. These include the "normal" nutritional state, as well as the
obese,mild, moderate and severe malnutritional states. The normal
nutritional state results from a nutritional state of equilibrium in
which the body ingests sufficiently, and in proper proportions, the
required nutrients needed to maintain a healthful state of being
(denoted as Grade-O). Obesity, a nutritional disorder, refers to the
over-consumption of nutrients and subsequent excess weight; this
nutritional state is also termed Grade-4 malnutrition. The states
of mild (Grade-l), moderate (Grade-2) and severe (Grade-3) malnutri-
tion are precipitated by the insufficient intake in quantity and
quality of nutrients (i.e. "undernutrition"). These different levels
of nutritional status are defined by the degree of phenotypic expres-
sion in growth, as measured b', growth parameters.
Furthermore, throughout much of the literature, the terms "malnu-
trition" and "undernutrition" are used interchangeably; however, it
should be noted that malnutrition refers specifically to the [ivstal
state of being which results from a poor or improper diet whereas
undernutrition denotes an inadequate dietary intake. Finally, when
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/39/: accessed June 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.