Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 24
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Statistics and used extensively by the Instituto de Nutricion de Centro
America I Panama (INCAP) with confidence for Guatemala, this all-
inclusive approach then becomes even more relevant and important in a
national and international context.
As a final note, by implementing the age independent weight-for-
height index, no assumptions as to the universality of growth rates
are made, and, thus, an intra-population comparison can be made strictly
on the basis of body ratio. This becomes particularly important when
examining populations which are constantly exposed to chronic malnutri-
tion. Stini (1971) and others contend that individuals within popula-
tions adjust to chronic malnutrition by slowing down their rates of
growth, thus, minimizing their nutrient-intake requirements. Therefore,
an intra-population parameter permits insight into this "adjustment."
Arm circumference (AC) refers to a measurement which is taken at
the midpoint between the acromial process (shoulder) and olecranon
process (elbow), usually Jn the left arm so as to avoid differential
arm muscle development (de Ville de Goyet et al. 1978). Basically, it
is used to measure the degree of wasting (acute malnutrition) with
respect to muscle tissue and fat reserves (subcutaneous deposits).
Briefly, a pre-calibrated tape is used which indicates the current
nutritional status, according to standards created by Wolanski (1961)
on the basis of a Polish population. The primary concern with this
measurement is that it is not reliable in that repeated measurements
on the same individual by the same examiner can show significant
With respect to subcutaneous fat measurements, Malina (1975) and
Jelliffe (1966) provide excellent descriptions. Though there are
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/37/: accessed April 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.