Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 18
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growth hormones). There are numerous discussions on the interaction
between nutrition and growth; see Rechcigl (1979), Passmore et al.
(1974), de Ville de Goyet et al. (1978) and Cameron and Hofvander (1976).
Usually these deficiencies do not occur alone, but rather in com-
binations which often complicate diagnosis. For example, kwashiorkor
and marasmus are the result of both protein and calorie malnutrition
(also referred to as PCM or PEM). Kwashiorkor, a nutritional disorder
resulting primarily from a deficiency in protein, is characterized by
the presence of distended stomachs, withered arms and edema in the
extremities. The distended stomach and swollen hands and feet are the
result of fluids collecting in those tissues. Sometimes, kwashiorkor
is also associated with the "moon" shaped face in which the facial
tissues collect fluids. Marasmus is the severest type of protein-
calorie undernutrition in which the body appears skeleton-like with
very wrinkled skin and what has been described as the "old man" face.
This is the result of the depletion of the fat stores and wasting of
the muscle tissues. However, marasmus is less common than kwashiorkor
because usually there are dietary starches available which provide
minimal caloric intake, except in cases of severe disruptions such as
that caused by natural catastrophy (i.e. droughts, earthquakes and
war). The PCM form of malnutrition is the most common nutritional
problem throughout the world (Malina 1975; Cameron and Hofvander 1976;
Rechcigl 1979), but is complicated by the widely varying combinations
of their symptoms.
The quantity and quality of the diet is very important in under-
standing nutrition atd the process of growth and the success in
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/31/: accessed March 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.