Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 17
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of heat loss. Deficiencies can result in symptoms similar to those
exhibited by carbohydrate deficiences, but the primary symptom is
dry, patchy skin.
Vitamins are essential in the formation of many body tissues and
materials, especially enzymes which are essential for all of the
body's chemical reactions, including protein decomposition. They also
enable the body to absorb and utilize more efficiently minerals from
the gastrointestinal tract. For example, in order for calcium to be
absorbed and utilized in the development of bone tissue, vitamin D
is necessary. Vitamin deficiencies can be numerous, but some of the
primary and most common deficiencies include these of vitamin A (which
can lead to poor vision and even blindness), vitamin B complex (which
can result in a less efficient metabolism, beriberi and/or pellagra),
vitamin C (which leads to metabolic failure, inefficient mineral
intake and utilization, and scurvy) and vitamin D (which influences
bone and tooth structure and can cause rickets). However, an individual
can survive short-term deficiencies in fat-soluable vitamins better than
water-soluable vitamin deficiencies, so that the latter can be more
Minerals are important in most metabolic enzyme reactions, where,
if present in adequate quantities, they help to produce the necessary
materials for growth. The primary deficiencies in minerals include
calcium, which is necessary for bone and tooth structure (though an
excess can result in calcification in the connective tissue); iron
deficiency, which can result in anemia; and iodine, resulting in the
malfunctioning of the thyroid gland (which normally helps regulate
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/30/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.