Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 14
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into the conditions of the pregnancy and delivery with respect to the
infant under question. Except in cases of mass, severe malnutrition in
adults, uterine effects are rarely exhibited across populations, but
rather in specific instances, therefore, it is generally not necessary
to take these into account (Jelliffe 1966).
With the understanding that growth potential, or how much an
individual is able to grow, is predetermined by genetics and somewhat
by uterine influences, attention must then turn more specifically to
nutrition. Growth, being one of the most, if not the most, plastic
processes in the human body, is primarily and directly affected by
nutrition, in that the adequacy of the diet determines how much of the
growth potential is realized. Furthermore, it is interaction between
nutrition and genotype which influences the rate of growth, body size
and gross morphology (Malina 1975). Therefore, in order to understand
growth, nutrition, nutrients and nutritional status need to be further
defined. Robinow (1979: 65) states that:
Nutrition is the process of assimilating substrate into
body tissues and stores. Nutrients are the metabolically
active constituents of food. Substrates are the metabolites
required for energy, growth, maintenance, and storage.
Nutritional status designates success in accomplishing this
process in relation to norms.
The nutritional effect simply refers to the impact of nutrient in-
take with respect to the level of nutrients expended, and dates from
in utero (conception) until long after the growth processes have been
completed. It is here that environment primarily expresses itself.
According to Jelliffe and Jelliffe (1979), whether or not an individual
can realize his genetic potential for growth is determined by environ-
ment. In the broadest sense, environment includes everything that
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/27/: accessed April 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.