Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 13
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identical twins, Pryor and Thelander (1972) state that H2 estimates
are not useful as indicators of optimal growth across populations.
Garn et al. (1979) state that in human populations this technique is
suspect since evidence has demonstrated that children raised under more
environmentally optimal conditions will show an increase in height,
considerably higher than predicted by the correlations. As a result,
heritability estimates are not as reliable as the previously mentioned
method (Pryor and Thelander 1972).
The uterine or maternal effect can be exhibited not only in the
size of the fertilized ovum and eventual birth size, but may influence
growth and body size well after birth and even into the second and
third generations. Tanner (1978) notes that the cause for a below
normal size lies in defects in either the fertilized ovum or the
placenta, or is attributable to starvation or disease (i.e. environment-
al conditions) in the mother. He also notes that those small-for-term
rarely fulfill their genetic potential, but do reach "normal centiles";
that is, they maintain a consistent rate of growth within the normal
(statistical) range. However, this is not generally a major influence
even in the Third World populations (Jelliffe 1966).
In order to account for the uterine effect on the attained growth
of an individual, two steps must be taken: 1) measurements of heri-
tability estimates must be made (though with caution) and 2) life
histories on the mother and infant must be acquired. The heritability
estimates will provide some notions as to what a given individual's
stature should be at a given age based on the biological parents' and
siblings' heights. The life histories should provide some insight
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/26/: accessed February 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.