Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 10
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The primary concern of this study is with the period of growth
referred to as "postnatal", specifically those stages designated as
neonatal (birth to one month), infancy (one month to one year) and
early childhood (one to six years). Most of the current growth and
nutrition literature term this period the "preschool" age. The re-
mainder of the postnatal growth period is referred to as middle child-
11ood (six years int[l adolescence) and adolescence, ranging from
about 10 until 20 years, depending upon sex (Malina 1975).
Growth is most often defined and measured in terms of height,
weight and skeletal maturation, to name a few parameters. Generally,
the techniques for measuring growth are referred to as anthropometry.
Malina (1975: 10) defines it as "systematized measurement techniques
which involve the use of carefully defined landmarks for measurements
and specific procedures." Though the two most common measurements of
growth are height and weight, other indicators would include sitting
height, leg length, breadth measurements (bicromial, bicristal, bicon-
dylar and biepicondylar), head circumference and bone (skeletal)
maturation (Malina 1975; Krogman 1972).
Before one can begin to understand the influence that the socio-
economic environment has on growth and nutritional status, all of the
potential influences must first be considered and, then, either ruled
out or accounted for, Garn et al. (1979) point out that there are
three determinants for growth: the genetic effect, uterine effect
and nutritional effect. The genetic effect refers to the maximum amount
of growth which can be potentially attained (genetic potential); and
this growth potential is coded into the genes (heredity) of the
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/23/: accessed February 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.