Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala Page: 9
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A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF HUMAN GROWTH AND NUTRITION
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss nutrition and the
measurement of nutritional status as it applies to human populations
in order that the later analyses can be better understood. However,
before discussing nutrition and nutritional status, it is first
necessary to define growth, since nutritional status is measured in
terms of growth.
Malina (1975: 1) defines growth as:
...a geometric process of self-multiplication of living
substance, involving primarily hyperplasia (increase in
cell number), hypertrophy (increase in cell size), and
accretion (increase in intercellular materials).
More simply put, growth refers to the processes by which the body en-
larges or increases in size, utilizing the substrates provided by
nutrient intake (diet) (Robinow 1979). Growth is further delineated
by specific "stages" which are characterized by different rates of
growth and, thus, different nutritional needs. These stages extend
usually thrcugh the first twenty years of life and include both pre-
natal and postnatal growth. The fetal stage involves an interval of
growth extending some 38 to 40 weeks during which the individual
develops from an ovum weighing approximately 5 X lO kilograms to
a newborn averaging 3.3 kilograms (Cameron and Hofvander 1976).
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Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala, report, May 1982; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/m1/22/: accessed July 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Public Affairs and Community Service.