Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes

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This study is motivated by renewed interest within the seismic source community to resolve the long-standing question on energy scaling of earthquakes, specifically, 'Do earthquakes scale self-similarly or are large earthquakes dynamically different than small ones?' This question is important from a seismic hazard prediction point of view, as well as for understanding basic rupture dynamics for earthquakes. Estimating the total radiated energy (ER) from earthquakes requires significant broadband corrections for path and site effects. Moreover, source radiation pattern and directivity corrections can be equally significant and also must be accounted for. Regional studies have used a number of different ... continued below

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Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L & Walter, W R March 16, 2007.

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This study is motivated by renewed interest within the seismic source community to resolve the long-standing question on energy scaling of earthquakes, specifically, 'Do earthquakes scale self-similarly or are large earthquakes dynamically different than small ones?' This question is important from a seismic hazard prediction point of view, as well as for understanding basic rupture dynamics for earthquakes. Estimating the total radiated energy (ER) from earthquakes requires significant broadband corrections for path and site effects. Moreover, source radiation pattern and directivity corrections can be equally significant and also must be accounted for. Regional studies have used a number of different methods, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. These methods include: integration of squared shear wave moment-rate spectra, direct integration of broadband velocity-squared waveforms, empirical Green's function deconvolution, and spectral ratio techniques. The later two approaches have gained popularity because adjacent or co-located events recorded at common stations have shared path and site effects, which therefore cancel. In spite of this, a number of such studies find very large amplitude variance across a network of stations. In this paper we test the extent to which narrowband coda envelopes can improve upon the traditional spectral ratio using direct phases, allowing a better comparison with theoretical models to investigate similarity. The motivation for using the coda is its stability relative to direct waves and its unique property of spatially homogenizing its energy. The local and regional coda is virtually insensitive to lateral crustal heterogeneity and source radiation pattern, and the use of the coda might allow for more stable amplitude ratios to better constrain source differences between event pairs. We first compared amplitude ratio performance between local and near-regional S and coda waves in the San Francisco Bay region for moderate-sized events, then applied the coda spectral ratio method to the 1999 Hector Mine mainshock and some of its larger aftershocks. We find: (1) Average amplitude ratio standard deviations using coda are {approx}0.05 to 0.12, roughly a factor of 3 smaller than direct S-waves for 0.2 < f < 15.0 Hz; (2) Coda spectral ratios for the M{sub w} 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake and its aftershocks show a clear departure from self-similarity, consistent with other studies using the same datasets; (3) Event-pairs (Green's function and target events) can be separated by as much as {approx}25 km for coda amplitudes without any appreciable degradation, in sharp contrast to direct waves.

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PDF-file: 16 pages; size: 0.7 Mbytes

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  • Journal Name: Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, n/a, June 8, 2007, LL11303 1-5; Journal Volume: 34

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  • Report No.: UCRL-JRNL-229275
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1018795
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc841182

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Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • March 16, 2007

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  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • Dec. 5, 2016, 3:24 p.m.

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Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L & Walter, W R. Evidence For Departure in Self-Similarity: A New Spectral Ratio Method Using Narrowband Coda Envelopes, article, March 16, 2007; Livermore, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc841182/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.