Isotope exchange kinetics in metal hydrides I : TPLUG model.

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A one-dimensional isobaric reactor model is used to simulate hydrogen isotope exchange processes taking place during flow through a powdered palladium bed. This simple model is designed to serve primarily as a platform for the initial development of detailed chemical mechanisms that can then be refined with the aid of more complex reactor descriptions. The one-dimensional model is based on the Sandia in-house code TPLUG, which solves a transient set of governing equations including an overall mass balance for the gas phase, material balances for all of the gas-phase and surface species, and an ideal gas equation of state. An ... continued below

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41 p.

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Larson, Rich; James, Scott Carlton & Nilson, Robert H. May 1, 2011.

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Description

A one-dimensional isobaric reactor model is used to simulate hydrogen isotope exchange processes taking place during flow through a powdered palladium bed. This simple model is designed to serve primarily as a platform for the initial development of detailed chemical mechanisms that can then be refined with the aid of more complex reactor descriptions. The one-dimensional model is based on the Sandia in-house code TPLUG, which solves a transient set of governing equations including an overall mass balance for the gas phase, material balances for all of the gas-phase and surface species, and an ideal gas equation of state. An energy equation can also be solved if thermodynamic properties for all of the species involved are known. The code is coupled with the Chemkin package to facilitate the incorporation of arbitrary multistep reaction mechanisms into the simulations. This capability is used here to test and optimize a basic mechanism describing the surface chemistry at or near the interface between the gas phase and a palladium particle. The mechanism includes reversible dissociative adsorptions of the three gas-phase species on the particle surface as well as atomic migrations between the surface and the bulk. The migration steps are more general than those used previously in that they do not require simultaneous movement of two atoms in opposite directions; this makes possible the creation and destruction of bulk vacancies and thus allows the model to account for variations in the bulk stoichiometry with isotopic composition. The optimization code APPSPACK is used to adjust the mass-action rate constants so as to achieve the best possible fit to a given set of experimental data, subject to a set of rigorous thermodynamic constraints. When data for nearly isothermal and isobaric deuterium-to-hydrogen (D {yields} H) and hydrogen-to-deuterium (H {yields} D) exchanges are fitted simultaneously, results for the former are excellent, while those for the latter show pronounced deviations at long times. These discrepancies can be overcome by postulating the presence of a surface poison such as carbon monoxide, but this explanation is highly speculative. When the method is applied to D {yields} H exchanges intentionally poisoned by known amounts of CO, the fitting results are noticeably degraded from those for the nominally CO-free system but are still tolerable. When TPLUG is used to simulate a blowdown-type experiment, which is characterized by large and rapid changes in both pressure and temperature, discrepancies are even more apparent. Thus, it can be concluded that the best use of TPLUG is not in simulating realistic exchange scenarios, but in extracting preliminary estimates for the kinetic parameters from experiments in which variations in temperature and pressure are intentionally minimized.

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41 p.

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  • Report No.: SAND2011-3243
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/1030413 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1030413
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc840914

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  • May 1, 2011

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • Dec. 8, 2016, 8:26 p.m.

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Larson, Rich; James, Scott Carlton & Nilson, Robert H. Isotope exchange kinetics in metal hydrides I : TPLUG model., report, May 1, 2011; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc840914/: accessed October 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.