Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy of Single Molecules in Solution

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During this funding period, we have developed two breakthrough techniques. The first is stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, providing label-free chemical contrast for chemical and biomedical imaging based on vibrational spectroscopy. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. We developed a three-dimensional multiphoton vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS imaging is significantly greater than that of spontaneous Raman microscopy, which is achieved by implementing high-frequency (megahertz) phase-sensitive detection. SRS microscopy has a major advantage over previous coherent Raman techniques in that it offers background-free ... continued below

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Sunney Xie, Wei Min, Chris Freudiger, Sijia Lu January 18, 2012.

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During this funding period, we have developed two breakthrough techniques. The first is stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, providing label-free chemical contrast for chemical and biomedical imaging based on vibrational spectroscopy. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. We developed a three-dimensional multiphoton vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS imaging is significantly greater than that of spontaneous Raman microscopy, which is achieved by implementing high-frequency (megahertz) phase-sensitive detection. SRS microscopy has a major advantage over previous coherent Raman techniques in that it offers background-free and readily interpretable chemical contrast. We demonstrated a variety of biomedical applications, such as differentiating distributions of omega-3 fatty acids and saturated lipids in living cells, imaging of brain and skin tissues based on intrinsic lipid contrast, and monitoring drug delivery through the epidermis. This technology offers exciting prospect for medical imaging. The second technology we developed is stimulated emission microscopy. Many chromophores, such as haemoglobin and cytochromes, absorb but have undetectable fluorescence because the spontaneous emission is dominated by their fast non-radiative decay. Yet the detection of their absorption is difficult under a microscope. We use stimulated emission, which competes effectively with the nonradiative decay, to make the chromophores detectable, as a new contrast mechanism for optical microscopy. We demonstrate a variety of applications of stimulated emission microscopy, such as visualizing chromoproteins, non-fluorescent variants of the green fluorescent protein, monitoring lacZ gene expression with a chromogenic reporter, mapping transdermal drug distribu- tions without histological sectioning, and label-free microvascular imaging based on endogenous contrast of haemoglobin. For all these applications, sensitivity is orders of magnitude higher than for spontaneous emission or absorption contrast, permitting nonfluorescent reporters for molecular imaging. Although we did not accomplish the original goal of detecting single-molecule by CARS, our quest for high sensitivity of nonlinear optical microscopy paid off in providing the two brand new enabling technologies. Both techniques were greatly benefited from the use of high frequency modulation for microscopy, which led to orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity. Extensive efforts have been made on optics and electronics to accomplish these breakthroughs.

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  • Report No.: Final Report
  • Grant Number: FG02-07ER15875
  • DOI: 10.2172/1033507 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1033507
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc839919

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  • January 18, 2012

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • Nov. 22, 2016, 10:41 p.m.

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Sunney Xie, Wei Min, Chris Freudiger, Sijia Lu. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy of Single Molecules in Solution, report, January 18, 2012; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc839919/: accessed May 28, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.