The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter Page: 3 of 31
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Composite inelastic Dark Matter (CiDM) is a model of iDM, where the 0(100 keV)
scale is dynamically generated by hyperfine interactions of a composite particle .
(See [13-20] for other examples of composite dark matter.) In the original CiDM
model, the dark matter consists of a spin-0 meson, Od, that has a single heavy con-
stituent quark. Adjacent in mass to 7d is the spin-1 dark meson, pd, and with the mass
scales chosen in , the mass splitting between 7d and Pd is 0(100 keV). The dark-
matter origin in CiDM is non-thermal and requires a primordial asymmetry between
the number densities of heavy quarks to heavy antiquarks. This article addresses the
early Universe cosmology of this minimal CiDM model, calculating the abundance of
7d bound states relative to Pd states, dark baryon states or other exotic configurations
of the dark quarks, as well as the direct detection properties of the various components.
The results of this article show that a wide range of final abundances of dark
hadrons is possible, depending on the spectroscopy of the dark sector states. Some
spectra have dark matter dominantly in the form of Od, while other spectra have dark
baryons dominating the abundance. In the latter case, where the dark baryons are the
predominant dark matter constituent, the residual 7d component interacts sufficiently
strongly to account for DAMA's signal. In all cases, exotic dark matter components
arise in CiDM with novel elastic scattering properties - nuclear recoil events are sup-
pressed at low-energy by a dark matter form factor. The relative abundance of pd to 7Td
is typically nPd/nd - 10- 4. Existing searches for down-scattering (pd -* Ord) in direct
detection experiments are not constraining, but may be feasible in the near future.
The organization of this article is as follows. Sec. 1.1 briefly reviews a specific im-
plementation of CiDM presented in  that will be used throughout this analysis. The
spectroscopy of this model is discussed in Sec. 2 and the synthesis of dark meson and
dark baryon states in the early Universe in Sec. 3. Sec. 3.4 is the primary result of this
article and the qualitatively different results of the synthesis calculation are classified
here. Sec. 4 addresses the upscattered fraction of dark pions and its implications for
direct detection. Sec. 5 summarizes constraints on the dark baryon fraction that arise
from direct dark matter searches such as CDMS and comments on the novel proper-
ties of the elastic scattering processes. Sec. 6 concludes with the outlook and further
1.1 Review of Axial CiDM Model
A wide variety of hidden sectors weakly coupled to the Standard Model have been
considered in the literature, and the possibility that dark matter is charged under
hidden sector gauge forces has received considerable recent attention [21-32]. In CiDM,
dark matter is a bound state with constituents charged under a hidden sector gauge
group of the form SU(Nc) x U(1)d, where the U(1)d gauge boson kinetically mixes
with Standard Model hypercharge gauge boson, and the SU(Nc) group condenses at
the GeV scale. Theories in which dark matter is charged under a new GeV-scale
gauge group, as in CiDM, predict a variety of multi-lepton signals in B-factories and 4-
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Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G. & /SLAC. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter, article, August 19, 2011; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc839908/m1/3/: accessed February 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.