Initiation of the TLR4 signal transduction network : deeper understanding for better therapeutics.

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The innate immune system represents our first line of defense against microbial pathogens, and in many cases is activated by recognition of pathogen cellular components (dsRNA, flagella, LPS, etc.) by cell surface membrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). As the initial trigger for innate immune response activation, TLRs also represent a means by which we can effectively control or modulate inflammatory responses. This proposal focused on TLR4, which is the cell-surface receptor primarily responsible for initiating the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane envelope of gram-negative bacteria. The goal was to better ... continued below

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67 p.

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Branda, Steven S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hayden, Carl C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Sherman, Michael Y. (University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX); Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Sale, Kenneth L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA) & Kent, Michael Stuart September 1, 2010.

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Description

The innate immune system represents our first line of defense against microbial pathogens, and in many cases is activated by recognition of pathogen cellular components (dsRNA, flagella, LPS, etc.) by cell surface membrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). As the initial trigger for innate immune response activation, TLRs also represent a means by which we can effectively control or modulate inflammatory responses. This proposal focused on TLR4, which is the cell-surface receptor primarily responsible for initiating the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane envelope of gram-negative bacteria. The goal was to better understand TLR4 activation and associated membrane proximal events, in order to enhance the design of small molecule therapeutics to modulate immune activation. Our approach was to reconstitute the receptor in biomimetic systems in-vitro to allow study of the structure and dynamics with biophysical methods. Structural studies were initiated in the first year but were halted after the crystal structure of the dimerized receptor was published early in the second year of the program. Methods were developed to determine the association constant for oligomerization of the soluble receptor. LPS-induced oligomerization was observed to be a strong function of buffer conditions. In 20 mM Tris pH 8.0 with 200 mM NaCl, the onset of receptor oligomerization occurred at 0.2 uM TLR4/MD2 with E coli LPS Ra mutant in excess. However, in the presence of 0.5 uM CD14 and 0.5 uM LBP, the onset of receptor oligomerization was observed to be less than 10 nM TLR4/MD2. Several methods were pursued to study LPS-induced oligomerization of the membrane-bound receptor, including CryoEM, FRET, colocalization and codiffusion followed by TIRF, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. However, there approaches met with only limited success.

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67 p.

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  • Report No.: SAND2010-7000
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/1008139 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1008139
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc835930

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • September 1, 2010

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • Dec. 5, 2016, 9:21 p.m.

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Branda, Steven S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hayden, Carl C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Sherman, Michael Y. (University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX); Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Sale, Kenneth L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA) & Kent, Michael Stuart. Initiation of the TLR4 signal transduction network : deeper understanding for better therapeutics., report, September 1, 2010; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc835930/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.