Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

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Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for ... continued below

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Hancock, David, W. February 14, 2012.

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Description

Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

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5 MB

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  • Report No.: DOE/EE0000473-1
  • Grant Number: EE0000473
  • DOI: 10.2172/1034766 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1034766
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc833357

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  • February 14, 2012

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • July 21, 2016, 8:22 p.m.

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Hancock, David, W. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report, report, February 14, 2012; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc833357/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.