Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint Page: 4 of 13
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* Stop-and-go drive cycles that allow for
the capture of energy from regenerative
* More focus on total cost of ownership as
opposed to capital cost
2.1 Fuel Consumption Measurement
and Model Verification
Two parcel delivery vehicles owned and operated
by the United Parcel Service were transported to
the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's
(NREL's) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants
(ReFUEL) research laboratory for fuel economy
and emissions testing on the chassis
dynamometer. Both the conventional and hybrid
diesel vehicle used the same 149-kW engine. The
hybrid-electric van was equipped with a parallel-
hybrid system from the Eaton Corporation. The
vehicles were tested at the ReFUEL laboratory
on three cycles-the New York Composite Cycle
(NYComp), the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck
(HHDDT), and the Hybrid Truck Users Forum
The models were developed in NREL's Future
Automotive System Technology Simulator
(FASTSim). FASTSim uses vehicle
characteristics, basic component specifications,
and engine-specific efficiency data to represent a
vehicle. It simulates the vehicle as it travels
through a time versus speed drive cycle. The
model captures key aspects including
regenerative braking, energy management
strategies, and auxiliary loads.
Table 1: Vehicle and component specifications
Conventional Diesel Hybrid
Test Weight 6,813 kg 7,303 kg
Drag 0.7 0.7
Frontal Area 7.80 m2 7.80 m2
Rolling Resistance 0.008 0.008
Radius 0.419 m 0.419 m
Energy N/A 1.8 kWh
Power N/A Matched to
Power 149 kW 149 kW
Peak Continuous Power N/A 26 kW
Peak Power N/A 44 kW
Power 3 kW 1.22 kW
The model matched data reasonably well. In
Figure 1, the grey error bars represent 10%
variability in the ReFUEL laboratory's measured
results. Each model result fell within the bars. The
simulated hybrid results show more variance than
the conventional results, but still fall within 10%
of the measured results.
o ReFUEL Measurement
Figure 1: Model verification
The primary source of uncertainty in the hybrid
model lies in the motor-efficiency map.
Component data for the motor were unavailable.
The model uses a motor-efficiency map from
another vehicle and assumes a peak efficiency of
The engine efficiency map for the conventional
model was created from ReFUEL laboratory test
data and a maximum-torque curve from the engine
2.2 Plug-in Hybrid Model Development
The diesel conventional is used as a point of
reference for the other powertrain/fuel
combinations in the cost and fuel-use analyses.
The diesel hybrid has the same engine as the diesel
conventional. A plug-in hybrid version of the
model was developed based on the hybrid-diesel
To make the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
(PHEV) comparable, the NREL team applied
similar vehicle-specific parameters and matched
the engine power to that of the diesel hybrid and
conventional (149 kW). The engine power was
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Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. & Brooker, A. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint, article, September 1, 2012; Golden, Colorado. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831986/m1/4/: accessed January 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.