Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development Page: 6 of 35
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Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development
PPG Industries, Inc.
IIU- Control 4./ 5.2
Anode 1 4.63 4.96
Anode 2 4.50 5.08
Anode 3 4.81 5.40
Anode 4 4.8 5.33
Requirement - >5.0
Table 4: Work-function comparisons for PPG anodes performed using an AC-2 photoelectron spectrometer. Please
note that the ITO anode is a commercially available product used by Plextronics, Inc. for device fabrication.
It can clearly be seen that the work function for all the anode materials was comparable to the ITO anode
after UV exposure.
Under the Anode Development task, alternate large area methods to manufacture anode coatings at low-
cost and improved properties were developed. Table 5 summarizes the results achieved for three of the
candidate anode materials. For Anode 1 an alternate lower cost deposition technique were explored. This
process led to smoother films with some compromise in electrical and optical properties. Separately,
process improvements were made to achieve better quality Anode 3 & 4 films.
Anode 1 10 85 14
Anode 1 (Alternate Process) 16 83 6
Anode 3 21 84 1
Table 5: Electrical, optical and surface roughness properties achieved for three candidate anode materials by testing
alternate low-cost deposition techniques and process improvements under the Anode Development task. The
roughness of Anode 1 deposited using the second lower-cost fabrication technique could not be determined
To test these anodes, green PHOLEDs (2mm x 2mm pixels) were fabricated at UDC for all PPG
candidate anode materials deposited on 2.0mm Solarphire PV glass. Figure 5 shows a schematic of
UDC's green PHOLED structure. Figure 6 is picture of a powered green PHOLED device fabricated on a
PPG anode-coated substrate.
Page 6 of 35
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Benton, Scott & Bhandari, Abhinav. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development, report, September 30, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831063/m1/6/: accessed May 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.