Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development Page: 34 of 35
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Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development
PPG Industries, Inc.
PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal
extraction layers, under DOE award DE-EE0003209. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost
reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates
and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and
short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using
PPG's high transmission Solarphire float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve OLED devices with
good performance and high yields.
Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated
using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic light-
emitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and
life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis
was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development.
Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external
extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the
transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed
pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel
solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL
approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and
acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for
2.0mm substrates which are at par with the standard diffuser sheets used by OLED manufacturers.
For an internal extraction layer (IEL), PPG tested two concepts combining nanoparticles either in a sol-
gel coating inserted between the anode and OLED or anode and glass interface, or incorporated into the
internal surface of the glass. Efficacy enhancements of 1.31x were demonstrated using white PHOLED
devices for the IEL by itself and factors of 1.73x were attained for an IEL in combination of thick acrylic
block as an EEL. Recent offline measurements indicate that, with further optimization, factors over 2.0x
could be achieved through an IEL alone.
Patents: No patent applications have been filed to date. Two are expected to be filed in early 2013.
Publications/Presentations/Travel: Several talks and poster presentations were given during the course
of the project:
" Peer Review, Westlake-TX, January 12, 2011: A. Bhandari, H. Buhay and T. Hart updated on the
" DoE SSL R&D Workshop, San Diego-CA, February 1-3, 2011: A. Bhandari gave an invited talk
on "Low-cost Integrated Substrate for OLED lighting" and presented a poster
" Budget Period I Review, Cheswick- PA, March 16, 2011: Budget period I review with the
Department of Energy was conducted at PPG
" DoE SSL Manufacturing R&D Workshop, Boston- MA, April 12-13, 2011: H. Buhay co-chaired
an OLED track session and presented on "OLED Materials Manufacturing Issues and Priorities:
Review of OLED Roundtable Meeting"
" DoE SSL R&D Workshop, Atlanta- GA, January 31- February 2, 2012: A. Bhandari presented a
poster on the project progress
Page 34 of 35
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Benton, Scott & Bhandari, Abhinav. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development, report, September 30, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831063/m1/34/: accessed May 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.