Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development Page: 32 of 35
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Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development
PPG Industries, Inc.
highlighted in Table 20 are promising, PPG believes that either of these technologies could be
used for SSL OLED lighting and meet the current cost targets.
Sheet Resistance (<20 0/=) -5 0/- 10 0/l
Visible Transmission (>85%) >85% -80%
Work Function (>5eV) 5.33eV 4.96eV
Surface Roughness Rrms505nmf, Rms~8nm,
(Rrs<2nm, R1,<20nm) RpV-10nm R~-30nm
Reliance on Scarce Materials Small to None None
Low-Cost Processing Yes Yes
Table 20: Comparison of down-selected MSVD and CVD anode metrics.
The CVD anode (Anode 1) is potentially the cheaper of two approaches but may further
development to assess the requirement of a solution deposited HIL to address the roughness
issues. The MSVD anode is a inexpensive short term alternative to the conventional ITO anode.
* Light Extraction Layers: A critical component of the integrated substrate is the light extraction
layer(s). This component has the potential to impact all four OLED lighting market drivers
namely, cost, lifetime, efficiency and brightness. There are numerous examples of technologies
that address the substrate, anode, and surface plasmon modes such as micro lenses. However,
these technologies suffer from issues such as scalability, durability/compatibility with OLED
device manufacturing and costs. Under this program, PPG investigated an in-glass embedded
oxide particle approach for light extraction. This approach had no durability or device
compatibility issues since the IEL is essentially fused into the glass surface. Offline
measurements indicate a potential to achieve over 2.Ox enhancement factors. While, for this
effort, offline deposition equipment was utilized, PPG's previous experience suggests that this
approach can be integrated with float glass manufacturing and is also scalable. Additionally,
roughness and substrate waviness issues (as discussed previously in this report) would be
mitigated by integrating this technology with the float glass manufacturing process. This
approach would require equipment and online process development but has an advantage because
it utilizes the existing base of aerosol spray equipment manufacturers. PPG believes that this
technology can be integrated with large-area float-glass manufacturing process and total average
cycle time (TACT) could be achieved to meet the IEL cost targets. Additionally, this IEL
technology may be combined with an appropriate EEL to achieve even better extraction
enhancement numbers. PPG has demonstrated two scalable methods to produce EELs which can
be integrated with float-glass manufacturing.
* Large-Area Process Development: In order to ascertain the true manufacturing costs there is a
need to develop and demonstrate a large-scale, high-throughput, continuous manufacturing
process for all components of integrated substrate. PPG has significant experience in large-area
coated glass products and believes that manufacture of large-area substrates could significantly
reduce the costs.
For the manufacturing process, real time inspection and process control systems also need to be
developed to ensure the quality and uniformity of the large-area substrates. This is essential for
lowering the costs associated with excess off-specification production. Development of process
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Benton, Scott & Bhandari, Abhinav. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development, report, September 30, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831063/m1/32/: accessed May 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.