Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development Page: 31 of 35
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Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development
PPG Industries, Inc.
- 120 Enscapsuarion
loo " xram" Component 2012 Target 2I5agt200Tre
Substrate 10 7 7
wO Anode 30 15 8
40 Extraction Lavers 20 30 10
Figure 30: DOE targets for material costs for OLED lighting panels. (Source: 2011 SSL R&D Manufacturing Roadmap)
Strategies to Mitigate Substrate Costs
PPG has been developing a large-area and low-cost integrated substrate for OLED lighting under this
program. This development work was done on pilot-scale manufacturing equipment and technologies that
were down-selected and developed to be compatible with established float glass manufacturing
technology. PPG believes that by combining these technologies with its existing infrastructure of large-
area float glass, online vapor and aerosol spray CVD, and architectural glass large-area vacuum physical
vapor deposition (PVD), for manufacture of integrated substrates, the costs could be decreased drastically.
Substantial experience has been gained through interactions with lab-scale and commercial OLED device
manufacturers that gave important feedback to ascertain the product specifications. Some of the key
leanings are highlighted below that could help achieve the short and long-term DoE MYPP cost targets.
* Substrate: Significant opportunity for glass cost reduction exists in switching from display glass
($20/m2) to unpolished float glass substrates ($6-7/m2). Under this program, it has been
demonstrated that through proper selection and pre-treatments, float glass can be utilized as a
substrate for OLED lighting applications. The alkali barrier layers may also not be required. PPG
operates 4 float glass lines in North America and produces a number of commercial coated glass
products. PPG has a deep understanding of the float glass substrate material costs and additional
pre-treatment costs and believes that manufacture a quality large-area substrate for OLED
lighting applications that meets the cost targets of less than $7/m2 (by 2015) is certainly possible.
There may be additional glass cutting costs involved depending on the substrate size requirement
of the OLED industry.
* Anode: Low resistance and high transmittance ITO coatings are commonly achieved by high
deposition temperature processes at about 3000C. The cost and technical challenges for an anode
vacuum deposition manufacturing process is to develop an in-line process with the ability to heat
glass quickly in vacuum and maintain uniform heating during transparent conductive oxide
(TCO) deposition while being transported at high line speed, or to develop a TCO that can be
deposited without the need to heat glass during transport in vacuum. Otherwise, post processing
will be required to optimize the sheet resistance and optical transmission, increasing process
complexity and cost. For all these approaches, TCO coatings need to be stable during OLED
fabrication processing. Under this program, PPG has developed two anodes (based on a room-
temperature MSVD and online CVD process) that match the performance of the conventional
ITO electrode, and which are low-cost alternatives. Since both of the anode technologies
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Benton, Scott & Bhandari, Abhinav. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development, report, September 30, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831063/m1/31/: accessed May 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.