Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development Page: 15 of 35
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Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development
PPG Industries, Inc.
thick glass using a high throughput process. Designed experiments were performed to achieve varying
levels of haze (scattering) and to identify suitable abrasive belts and brushes.
Figure 13: A picture of the Timesavers equipment used for mechanical abrasion of glass to generate EEL for OLED
It was demonstrated that optical characteristics similar to those of acid etched samples could be achieved
using a mechanical texturing process. Table 13 is a comparison of the optical properties that were
achieved using the two techniques. The results were verified with large area device fabrication on
mechanically textured samples.
Chemical Etching Mechanical Abrasion
Transmission(%) aze (%) Transmission () aze (%)
Type I 92.4 57.4 92.3 57.7
Type II 88.8 77.6 87.3 80.4
Tye III 82 99.1 81.1 92.9
Table 13: Comparison of transmission and haze achieved on 2.0mm float glass substrates using scalable chemical
etching and mechanical abrasion techniques. Various sample types correspond to different processing parameters.
Internal Extraction Layers (IELs)
PPG explored several technologies, including flame spray-based embedded oxide particles and sol-gel
coating, to develop an IEL layer. These technologies were selected based on cost effectiveness, scalability
and time-to-market criteria. Standard large area green and white PHOLED devices, as described in the
previous section, were fabricated to test and measure the light extraction factors for these IELs.
Embedded Particle IEL:
The objective of this activity was to develop an in-glass particulate-based scattering layer to be used
underneath the anode as an internal light extraction feature. The enhancement of the light extraction is
largely dependent on the choice of particulate material, the refractive index and absorption coefficient of
the oxide particles, the size and size distribution of the incorporated particles, the depth and concentration
of the particle incorporation, and the final haze level. The scattering particles were embedded beneath the
glass surface by an atmospheric flame spray process. In principle, the flame spraying can be performed on
a tin bath float line as the glass itself is produced. Also, since these particles are embedded inside the
Page 15 of 35
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Benton, Scott & Bhandari, Abhinav. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development, report, September 30, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc831063/m1/15/: accessed May 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.