Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE

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To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and ... continued below

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Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Negre, Nicolas; Eaton, Matthew L. et al. December 22, 2010.

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To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- and tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation. Several years after the complete genetic sequencing of many species, it is still unclear how to translate genomic information into a functional map of cellular and developmental programs. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) (1) and model organism ENCODE (modENCODE) (2) projects use diverse genomic assays to comprehensively annotate the Homo sapiens (human), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) genomes, through systematic generation and computational integration of functional genomic data sets. Previous genomic studies in flies have made seminal contributions to our understanding of basic biological mechanisms and genome functions, facilitated by genetic, experimental, computational, and manual annotation of the euchromatic and heterochromatic genome (3), small genome size, short life cycle, and a deep knowledge of development, gene function, and chromosome biology. The functions of {approx}40% of the protein and nonprotein-coding genes [FlyBase 5.12 (4)] have been determined from cDNA collections (5, 6), manual curation of gene models (7), gene mutations and comprehensive genome-wide RNA interference screens (8-10), and comparative genomic analyses (11, 12). The Drosophila modENCODE project has generated more than 700 data sets that profile transcripts, histone modifications and physical nucleosome properties, general and specific transcription factors (TFs), and replication programs in cell lines, isolated tissues, and whole organisms across several developmental stages (Fig. 1). Here, we computationally integrate these data sets and report (i) improved and additional genome annotations, including full-length proteincoding genes and peptides as short as 21 amino acids; (ii) noncoding transcripts, including 132 candidate structural RNAs and 1608 nonstructural transcripts; (iii) additional Argonaute (Ago)-associated small RNA genes and pathways, including new microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded within protein-coding exons and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from 3-inch untranslated regions; (iv) chromatin 'states' defined by combinatorial patterns of 18 chromatin marks that are associated with distinct functions and properties; (v) regions of high TF occupancy and replication activity with likely epigenetic regulation; (vi)mixed TF and miRNA regulatory networks with hierarchical structure and enriched feed-forward loops; (vii) coexpression- and co-regulation-based functional annotations for nearly 3000 genes; (viii) stage- and tissue-specific regulators; and (ix) predictive models of gene expression levels and regulator function.

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  • Journal Name: Science

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  • Report No.: LBNL-4361E
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • Grant Number: U01HG004271 (SEC)
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 1010935
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc830353

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  • December 22, 2010

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  • May 19, 2016, 3:16 p.m.

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  • June 16, 2016, 3:39 p.m.

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Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Kheradpour, Pouya; Negre, Nicolas; Eaton, Matthew L. et al. Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE, article, December 22, 2010; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc830353/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.