Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies Page: 3 of 36
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DE-EE0003667 - Final Technical Report
Ethane (C2H6) Carbonyl Sulfide (COS)
Cyclopropene (C3H6) ICS
Propane (C3H8) NC,
Butadine (C4H6) NC,
The AVL SESAM FTIR also measures total hydrocarbon (THC) concentrations in the exhaust
gas using the Flame Ionization Detector. The measuring principle is ionization of organic carbon atoms in
a hydrogen flame burning in an electric field. The flame in the analyzer's burner chamber cracks and
ionizes the hydrocarbons in the sample gas to very small fragments. The ions are producing a current in
the electric field that is directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms in the sample. The current is
electrically amplified and converted to a voltage (AVL Technical Facts).
The Infrared Detector (IRD) analyzer can be integrated for C02 - EGR measurements. The
measuring principle of the IRD is the non-dispersive infrared absorption process. This process is based on
absorption at the characteristic vibration rotation spectrum bands of non-elemental gases in the middle of
infrared range between 2 and 12 pm. Gas molecules with a bipolar moment interact with infrared
radiation. The photometer consists of an infrared radiation source whose emissions reach a sample cell via
a chopper wheel. The sample cell is designed as a tube that is divided into a sample and reference part.
The measurement effect produced in the receiver is a pressure change effect resulting from the chopper
frequency, received by a diaphragm capacitor and converted into an electrical signal by an attached
preamplifier (AVL Technical Facts).
The Paramagnetic Detector (PMD) analyzer is designed for measurements of the oxygen (02)
concentration in the exhaust gas. The underlying measuring principle of the PMD is the paramagnetic
property of oxygen molecules in a magnetic field. The sample gas to be analyzed is lead through a sample
chamber containing a dumbbell-shaped cavity made of quartz glass that is suspended on rotary tension
bands. The two cylindrical dumbbell halves are inserted into an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Oxygen
molecules are drawn into the magnetic field. The produced partial pressure change applies a force to the
dumbbell and generates torque to move the dumbbell from its original position. The magnitude of this
torque is proportional to the oxygen concentration and can be converted into an electrical signal (AVL
As part of this experiment, an exhaust manifold had to be designed and fabricated to provide
adequate space for sample probe placement. The finished product can be seen in Figure 2. The custom
exhaust manifold needed several provisions for sampling probes. Each of the three systems connected to
the exhaust had its own requirements for probe placement. The SPC 472 sampling probe had to be the
first in line, because the measurement is temperature sensitive. The second probe in the system is the
AVL FTIR probe. This probe extracts the sample of exhaust gas and transfers it to the main cabinet where
it is analyzed. It too is temperature sensitive, but comes equipped with a line heater to prevent any
condensation build up in the line. The final probe installed into the manifold is the AVL MicroSoot
sensor probe. According to the installation instructions, its placement is not crucial, just as long as the
probe is facing the correct direction.
The students were intensively and comprehensively trained to use the instrument.
March 31, 2012
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Soloiu, Valentin. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies, report, March 31, 2012; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc827653/m1/3/: accessed April 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.