Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation Page: 2 of 3
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Enrollment. An enrolled bill is the final version of a measure agreed to by both
chambers, printed on parchment or paper.6 Enrolled measures in the Senate are
"examined under the supervision of the Secretary of the Senate, to see that the same are
correctly enrolled."7 In the House, the clerk, in cooperation with the Senate, examines
"all bills and joint resolutions that have passed both Houses to see that they are correctly
enrolled."8 House-enrolled bills are also certified by the clerk as having originated in the
House.' Enrolled bills are then signed by the presiding officers of both chambers,10 with
the Speaker typically signing the measure first." In the House, the Speaker may sign
enrolled measures at any time.12 A formally designated Speaker pro tempore, appointed
with the approval of the House, may sign enrolled bills in the Speaker's absence. The
presiding officer of the Senate is authorized to sign enrolled measures when the Senate
is in session. When a new Congress convenes, the Senate typically adopts by unanimous
consent an order authorizing the President of the Senate, the President pro tempore, or any
Senator13 appointed by the President pro tempore to sign duly enrolled bills and joint
resolutions during recesses and adjournments for the duration of that Congress.14
Both houses must adopt a concurrent resolution to recall an incorrectly enrolled bill
already sent to the President, or to make changes in the text of an enrolled bill still in the
possession of the Congress."
When the officials from both chambers have signed an enrolled bill, the measure is
sent by the clerk or secretary, as determined by the chamber from which the bill
originated, to the President for his consideration. With the general exception of an
expiration of a Congress, there is no specific deadline within which Congress must submit
6 1 U.S.C. 107.
7 Senate Rule XIV, cl. 5.
8 House Rule II, cl. (2)(d)(2).
9 Lewis Deschler, Deschler's Precedents of the United States House of Representatives, vol. VII,
H.Doc. 94-661, 94h Cong., 2"d sess. (Washington: GPO, 1977), p. 453. The clerk signs the back
of an enrolled measure to certify that it originated in the House.
10 1 U.S.C. 106.
" See Floyd M. Riddick and Alan S. Frumin, "Riddick's Senate Procedure: Precedent and
Practices," S. Doc. 101-28, 101St Cong., 2"d sess. (Washington: GPO, 1992), p. 830; and
Deschler, Deschler's Precedents, p. 453.
12 House Rule I, cl. 4.
13 The Senate President pro tempore may designate in writing another Senator to sign enrolled
bills in his or her absence, but under Senate Rule I, cl. 3, this authority may not extend beyond
an adjournment, except by unanimous consent.
14 See "Unanimous Consent Agreement," Congressional Record, daily edition, Jan. 4, 2007, p.
S8; and "Unanimous Consent Agreement," Congressional Record, daily edition, Jan. 4, 2005,
15 See H.Con.Res. 270, 110'h Congress, making corrections in the enrollment of H.R. 1593
(Second Chance Act of 2007), adopted Mar. 11, 2008; and S.Con.Res. 112, 109th Congress, a
concurrent resolution relating to correcting a clerical error in the enrollment of S. 3693 (A bill
to make technical corrections to the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice
Reauthorization Act of 2005), adopted July 20, 2006.
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Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation, report, March 24, 2008; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815019/m1/2/: accessed January 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.