The Pacific Salmon Treaty: The 1999 Agreement and Renegotiation of Annex IV Page: 2 of 43
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The Pacific Salmon Treaty:
The 1999 Agreement and Renegotiation of Annex IV
The Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST) of 1985 requires the United States and Canada
to develop periodic bilateral agreements to implement the PST's conservation and
harvest-sharing principles. Beginning in 1993, long-standing disputes prevented such
an agreement from being concluded. On June 30, 1999, after many years of heated
diplomatic struggles, U.S. and Canadian officials reached a new comprehensive
agreement. The 1999 Agreement (1) established abundance-based fishing regimes
for the Pacific salmon fisheries under the jurisdiction of the PST; (2) created two
bilaterally managed regional restoration and enhancement endowment funds to
promote cooperation, improve fishery management, and aid stock and habitat
enhancement efforts; and (3) included provisions to enhance bilateral cooperation,
improve the scientific basis for salmon management, and apply institutional changes
to the Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC). Annex IV to the 1999 Agreement
outlines, in detail, the fishery regimes to be followed by Canada and the United States
in cooperatively managing the six species of anadromous Pacific salmon and trout.
Before it expires at the end of 2008, the terms of Annex IV are to be renegotiated.
The 1999 conservation and harvest-sharing agreement was of interest to
Congress for several reasons. Most notably, a congressional appropriation of $140
million was required to establish the agreement's two regional restoration and
enhancement endowment funds. Provisions of the 1999 Agreement were
implemented thorough additional authorizing language and amendment of the Pacific
Salmon Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 3631, et seq.). The 1999 Agreement under the PST
regime has been implemented in accordance with existing U.S. laws pertaining to
salmon conservation (e.g., Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act; Endangered Species Act). In addition, the agreement's
implementation determines the quantity of fish available for commercial,
recreational, and subsistence fisheries as well as Indian treaty allocations.
Many complex issues continue to challenge the PSC and the parties; several of
these will likely be addressed in the renegotiation of the expiring Annex IV fisheries
regimes. Many participants believe that the most difficult issue associated with the
renegotiation concerns the fishery regime for chinook salmon found in Chapter 3 of
Annex IV. The problems arising from the status (e.g., U.S. endangered and
threatened species listing) of certain runs of chinook salmon in Washington, Oregon,
Idaho, and perhaps British Columbia may pose particular challenges for the
This report provides historical background about the PST, discusses issues that
created difficulties in the regime, summarizes the 1999 accord, and analyzes issues
that are likely to be considered during the impending renegotiation of Annex IV. The
110th Congress will likely conduct oversight of the renegotiation process and its
results. This report will be updated as circumstances warrant.
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The Pacific Salmon Treaty: The 1999 Agreement and Renegotiation of Annex IV, report, March 30, 2007; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808997/m1/2/: accessed May 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.