Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000 Page: 7 of 40
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especially for space, energy, defense, and environment (in EPA and the Interior
Department). See Figure 3 and Tables 1 and 2. Appropriations in the 104', 105th
and 106th Congresses were subject to caps, which continued to be applied, even as the
economy started to rebound and budgetary surpluses started to grow (beginning
Figure 3. Trends in Nondefense R&D Funding by Budget Function,
Trends in Nondefense R&D by Function, FY 1953-2001
outlays for the conduct of R&D, billions of constant FY 2000 dollars
1953 1958 1963 1968 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998
Health Gen. Science Q Environ. E Other Q Energy Q Space
Source: AAAS, based on OMB Historical Tables in Budget of the United States
Government FY2001. Constant dollar conversion based on GDP deflators. FY
2001 is the President's request.
Note: Some Energy programs shifted to General Science beginning in FY 1998.
FEB. '00 2000 AAAS
in 1997). Because of wide congressional support for R&D, starting in 1996,
Congress, despite the pressure of caps, began to give R&D funding a higher priority.
In 1996, Congress appropriated 1.8% more for FY1997 R&D than the President had
requested. This pattern of congressional increases continued in succeeding years. In
addition, R&D funding started to increase over each previous year in terms of
constant dollars, beginning with FY1997. For FY1999 and FY2000, Congress used
emergency spending authority to circumvent budget caps in many areas, and, as one
result, federal R&D appropriations were increased.
For FY2001, Congress, utilizing CBO forecasts of additional surpluses, raised
the discretionary caps to about $100 billion above the existing cap and above what the
President had requested, paving the way for major increases in R&D appropriations.
For FY2001, Congress substantially increased R&D funding to $91 billion, 9.1%
more than in FY2000. R&D in every federal agency was funded at more than in
FY2000. R&D funding in all agencies, except the National Science Foundation
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Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000, report, March 14, 2001; Washington D.C.. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807319/m1/7/: accessed March 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.