Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000 Page: 6 of 40
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Figure 2. Federal Spending on Defense and Nondefense R&D,
FY1 949-FY2001, Bar Graph
Federal Spending on Defense and Nondefense R&D
Outlays for the conduct of R&D, FY 1949-2001, billions of constant FY 2000 dollars
70 -- ------------------------------
60 ------ --- -- -----------
50- - -- --
30------ - -
1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999
Q Defense R&D U Nondefense R&D
Source: OMB Historical Tables. FY 2001 is the President's request.
FEB. '00 2000 AAAS
R&D Budgeting in the Context of Deficit Reduction
R&D budgeting during the period 1993-2001 occurred amid activities
undertaken to halt deficit spending and to balance the budget. The 103rd Congress
imposed, beginning in 1993, limits on discretionary spending-the part of the budget
from which most R&D is funded. Later, in 1997, the President and Congress agreed
on a balanced budget bill that capped discretionary spending through FY2002.
Because of the spending caps imposed by Congress, R&D programs increasingly
competed with funding for other discretionary programs as discretionary spending
was projected to decline from 37% of total outlays in FY1999 to about 30% in
FY2002. Thus R&D funding vied even more than it had in the past with programs
for public infrastructure, housing, discretionary social services programs, and
transportation, even as funding for these programs overall was projected to decline.
During the first Clinton Administration, 1993 to the beginning of 1997, funding
for many R&D programs was reduced in constant dollar (inflation-adjusted) terms,
is not without controversy. For instance, The Economic Laws of Scientific Research, by
Terence Kealey, 1996, disputed a link between government support of S&T and economic
growth and endorsed a smaller governmental role in R&D.
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Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000, report, March 14, 2001; Washington D.C.. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807319/m1/6/: accessed March 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.