Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000 Page: 5 of 40
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Figure 1. Federal Spending on Defense and Nondefense R&D,
FY1 949-FY2001, Line Grapha
Federal Spending on Defense and Nondefense R&D
Outlays for the conduct of R&D, FY 1949-2001, billions of constant FY 2000 dollars
50 -------------- ----------
40 ---------------------- --- -
30 ----------- ----
1949 1954 1959 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999
Source: OMB Historical Tables. FY 2001 is the President's request.
FEB. '00 2000 AAAS
a Source: American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS, at
[http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/guihist.htm]. This source is used for all AAAS figures that
are in this CRS report.
Partly in response to the end of the Cold War, but also influenced by policy
inclinations, President Clinton sought to change these priorities - primarily to reduce
defense R&D in DOD and in DOE and to increase civilian research, technology
investment and development, basic research, computer networking, and
commercialization of R&D.2 This shift was intended to ensure federal support of
R&D to promote economic growth, a basic policy objective of the Clinton
Administration.3 See Figure 2.
2For historical information, see: Genevieve J. Knezo, "Policies on Science and Technology
Topics Proposed By the Clinton Campaign: A List," CRS Report 93-96 SPR, January 27,
1993, 6 p. See also Glenn McLoughlin and Wendy Schacht, "Technology Policy Initiatives
in the Clinton-Gore Administration," CRS Report 93-357 SPR, Mar. 18, 1993. 48 p.
3The 1995 Economic Report of the President and the Council of Economic Advisors' (CEA)
October 1995 report, Supporting R&D to Promote Economic Growth: The Federal
Government's Role, reported that the estimated social rate of return to R&D averages 50%,
which, the CEA said, is significantly higher than returns on other investments. This finding
Defense R&D -A- Nondefense R&D
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Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000, report, March 14, 2001; Washington D.C.. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807319/m1/5/: accessed March 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.