Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000 Page: 4 of 40
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Federal Research and Development:
Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000
This report describes executive and legislative activities relating to research and
development (R&D) budgets and priority-setting that occurred primarily during
FY1993 to FY2001, the period of the two Clinton Administrations. It includes
detailed summaries of presidential priorities and congressional appropriations
activities for R&D in the 104th to 106th Congresses. In addition, the report
summarizes other salient issues discussed during this period relating to congressional
earmarking of R&D projects, activities to coordinate R&D priority-setting, priorities
for critical technologies, implementation of the Government Performance and Results
Act of 1993 in R&D agencies, and priority-setting activities of the National Science
and Technology Council (NSTC). This report is based in part on CRS Issue Brief
94009, which chronicled R&D budgeting and priority-setting activities from 1994 to
Since it started funding large amounts of R&D after World War II, the federal
government has always supported core fields of science, but the focus in R&D
budgets has changed in response to policy shifts, congressional concerns, and
presidential prerogatives. During the 1970s, interest focused on space R&D, growth
in energy and health research and reductions in defense R&D (R&D in the
Department of Defense (DOD) and defense R&D in the Department of Energy
(DOE)). In FY1978, non-federal sources, largely industry, started to eclipse the
federal government as a source of R&D funding. Support for defense R&D and for
basic research became prominent during the 1980s, with the Administrations of
Presidents Ronald Reagan and President George Bush.' Energy research and space
research funding declined. In FY1989, near the end of the Reagan Administration,
about 65% of federal R&D funding went to defense R&D (R&D in DOD and defense
R&D in DOE), and near the end of the Bush Administration in FY1993, defense R&D
received about 57% of federal R&D funding. (For details, see Figures 1 and 2 and
Following the precedent used by the National Archives and Records Administration, the Bush
Administration, 1989-1993, is cited as the Administration of George Bush. The Bush
Administration, beginning in 2001, is cited as the Administration of George W. Bush. These
forms are used in this report.
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Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting, 1993-2000, report, March 14, 2001; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807319/m1/4/: accessed February 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.