The Mechanisms of Human Glutathione Synthetase and Related Non-Enyzmatic Catalysis

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Human glutathione synthetase (hGS) is a homodimeric enzymes that catalyzes the second step in the biological synthesis of glutathione, a critical cellular antioxidant. The enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity towards the γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC) substrate. In this type of allosteric regulation, the binding of γ-GC at one active site significantly reduces substrate affinity at a second active site over 40 Å away. The presented work explores protein-protein interactions, substrate binding, and allosteric communication through investigation of three regions of hGS: the dimer interface, the S-loop, and the E-loop. Strong electrostatic interactions across the dimer interface of hGS maintain the appropriate tertiary and ... continued below

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viii, 82 pages : illustrations (chiefly color)

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Ingle, Brandall L. May 2015.

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  • Ingle, Brandall L.

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Human glutathione synthetase (hGS) is a homodimeric enzymes that catalyzes the second step in the biological synthesis of glutathione, a critical cellular antioxidant. The enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity towards the γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC) substrate. In this type of allosteric regulation, the binding of γ-GC at one active site significantly reduces substrate affinity at a second active site over 40 Å away. The presented work explores protein-protein interactions, substrate binding, and allosteric communication through investigation of three regions of hGS: the dimer interface, the S-loop, and the E-loop. Strong electrostatic interactions across the dimer interface of hGS maintain the appropriate tertiary and quaternary enzymatic structure needed for activity. The S-loop and E-loop of hGS form walls of the active site near γ-GC, with some residues serving to bind and position the negatively cooperative substrate. These strong interactions in the active site serve as a trigger for allosteric communication, which then passes through hydrophobic interactions at the interface. A comprehensive computational and experimental approach relates hGS structure with activity and regulation. ATP-grasp enzymes, including hGS, utilize ATP in the nucleophilic attack of a carboxylic acid in a reaction thought to proceed through the formation of an acylphosphate intermediate. Small metal cations are known to chelate the terminal phosphates of actives site ATP, yet the role of these atoms remains unclear. In the presented work, a computational metal substitution study establishes the role these divalent cations in the catalysis of peptide bonds. The simple model is used to determine the impact of metal cations on the thermodynamics and kinetics, an important stepping stone in understanding the importance of metal cations in larger biological systems.

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viii, 82 pages : illustrations (chiefly color)

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  • May 2015

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  • Feb. 9, 2016, 4:37 p.m.

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  • March 23, 2017, 7:07 a.m.

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Ingle, Brandall L. The Mechanisms of Human Glutathione Synthetase and Related Non-Enyzmatic Catalysis, dissertation, May 2015; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc801927/: accessed September 26, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .