Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

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Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon ... continued below

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Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E. & Baumgard, K. J. November 1, 2005.

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Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

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12 p.

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  • Related Information: SAE Paper No. 2005-01-2193; Posted with permission. Presented at the 2005 SAE Brasil Fuels & Lubricants Meeting; Rio de Janiero, Brazil; May 2005

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  • Report No.: NREL/CP-540-38493
  • Grant Number: AC36-99-GO10337
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 861420
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc791796

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  • November 1, 2005

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  • Dec. 19, 2015, 7:14 p.m.

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Merritt, P. M.; Ulmet, V.; McCormick, R. L.; Mitchell, W. E. & Baumgard, K. J. Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends, article, November 1, 2005; Golden, Colorado. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc791796/: accessed December 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.