The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

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A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, ... continued below

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Bessinger, Brad & Apps, John A. March 23, 2003.

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A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.

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OSTI as DE00840338

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  • Other Information: PBD: 23 Mar 2003

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  • Report No.: LBNL--57395
  • Grant Number: AC03-76SF00098
  • DOI: 10.2172/840338 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 840338
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc788478

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  • March 23, 2003

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  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • Sept. 21, 2017, 6:04 p.m.

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Bessinger, Brad & Apps, John A. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver, report, March 23, 2003; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc788478/: accessed October 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.