SAMPLING, ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES OF PRIMARY PM-2.5: APPLICATION TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

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A dilution sampler was used to examine the effects of dilution ratio and residence time on the particulate emissions from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor. Measurements include the particle size distribution from 0.003 to 2.5 {micro}m, PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate and PM2.5 composition (OC/EC, major ions, and elemental). Hot filter samples were also collected simultaneously in order to compare the dilution sampler measurement with standard stack sampling methodologies such as EPA Method 5. Measurements were made both before and after the bag-house, the particle control device used on the coal combustor. Measurements were made with three different coal types ... continued below

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34 pages

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Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lipsky, Eric; Stainer, Charles; Anderson, Natalie; Takahama, Satoshi et al. February 1, 2003.

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A dilution sampler was used to examine the effects of dilution ratio and residence time on the particulate emissions from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor. Measurements include the particle size distribution from 0.003 to 2.5 {micro}m, PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate and PM2.5 composition (OC/EC, major ions, and elemental). Hot filter samples were also collected simultaneously in order to compare the dilution sampler measurement with standard stack sampling methodologies such as EPA Method 5. Measurements were made both before and after the bag-house, the particle control device used on the coal combustor. Measurements were made with three different coal types and a coal-biomass blend. The residence time and dilution ratio do not influence the PM{sub 2.5} mass emission rate, but have a significant effect on the size distribution and total number emissions. Measurements made before the bag-house showed increasing the residence time dramatically decreases the total particle number concentration, and shifts the particle mass to larger sizes. The effects of residence time can be explained quantitatively by the coagulation of the emitted particles. Measurements made after the bag-house were not affected by coagulation due to the lower concentration of particles. Nucleation of sulfuric acid vapor within the dilution was an important source of ultrafine particles. This nucleation is strongly a function of dilution ratio because of the competition between condensation and nucleation. At low dilution ratios condensation dominates and little nucleation is observed; increasing the dilution ratio promotes nucleation because of the corresponding decrease in available surface area per unit volume for condensation. No nucleation was observed after the bag house where conditions greatly favor nucleation over condensation; we suspect that the bag house removed the SO{sub 3} in the flue gas. Exhaust SO{sub 3} levels were not measured during these experiments. Dilution caused the enrichment of selenium, ammonium and sulfate in the PM{sub 2.5} emissions compared to the hot filter samples. The enrichment of selenium was independent of dilution ratio or residence time. The enrichment of ammonium and sulfate increased with increasing dilution ratio. PM{sub 2.5} emission profiles for four different fuels (two eastern bituminous coals, a western sub-bituminous coal, and coal-wood blend) were developed. These profiles compared well with profiles from similar coal sources, while showing unique characteristics due to differences in fuel composition.

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34 pages

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OSTI as DE00822106

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  • Other Information: PBD: 1 Feb 2003

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  • Report No.: NONE
  • Grant Number: FG26-99FT40583
  • DOI: 10.2172/822106 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 822106
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc785801

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Creation Date

  • February 1, 2003

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • Jan. 17, 2018, 4:37 p.m.

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Robinson, Allen L.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lipsky, Eric; Stainer, Charles; Anderson, Natalie; Takahama, Satoshi et al. SAMPLING, ANALYSIS, AND PROPERTIES OF PRIMARY PM-2.5: APPLICATION TO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS, report, February 1, 2003; [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785801/: accessed December 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.