Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Page: 3 of 7
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PWR Spent Fuel 20 kg HM/batch - Burn-up: 43,000 MWd/tU - Enrichment: U-235 3.5%
- Cooling: 10 Years - Mass: - Radioactivity:
Disssmblng& Cutting, Voloxidation, Electrochemical Reduction...
Ac: [96.4%], Np(13.67), Pu(199.32), Ac: U(NG)[NG], Np(0.74),
Am(14.8), Cm(1.15)[228.9; 1.2%] Cm(86.5)[1986.2; 52.3%]
FPs: Se(0.033), Br(0.013), Sr(0.45), Te(0.294) FPs: Te(0.2),
Cs(1.378), Ba(10.074), Eu(0.093) Ba(46.92), Eu(4.2)[138.6; 3.6%]
RE: Y(11.37), La(31.07), Ce(1.42), Pr(28.22) RE: Pr(3.7), Pm(187.3), Sm(0.2)
Nd(57.86), Pm(0.206), Sm(0.5), Gd(3.82) Ce(0.09)[1614.6; 42.5%]
Tb(0.074), Dy(0.042)[134.6; 0.7%]
NM: Zr(91.34), Mo(84.87), Tc(19.21), Ru(57.82), NM: Zr(0.05), Tc(0.33), Ru(15.3), Rh(15.3),
Rh(10.43), Pd(39.3), Ag(1.95), Cd(3.254) Ag(0.01), Cd(0.98), Sn(0.03), Sb(29.9)
In(0.05), Sn(2.30), Sb(0.48)[311; 1.6%] [61.9; 1.6%]
Fig. 2. Mass and radioactivity of spent fuels for the smelting process.
The physical properties of target materials for the design of the smelter was investigated and
shown in Table 1. For the melting of metal powder, the melting temperature should be higher than the
melting point of the uranium metal, 1132 0C. The oxide compounds will not be melted in the normal
melting condition and can be collected as dross after the smelting process. The electrochemical
reduction process is normally carried out in a 3wt% Li20-LiCl molten salt. Therefore LiCl and Li20
are originated from the electrochemical reduction process and the amount will vary according to the
preconditioning step in order to reduce residual salts in a metal product. The chloride compounds such
as LiCl, SrCl and CsCl have relatively low melting and boiling points and expected to vaporize during
the smelting process.
Table. 1. Physical Properties of the Key Target Materials
Element U Am CsCl SrCl2 LiCI Li20 Y203
m.p.(C) 1132 1173 646 868 613 1570 -2410
b.p.("C) 3930 2600 1303 2056 1360 - -
d (g/cm3) 19.07 13.67 3.99 3.052 2.07 2.013 5.03
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Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S. & Park, S-W. Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process, article, October 3, 2004; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785482/m1/3/: accessed March 26, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.