The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability

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This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were ... continued below

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2.1 MB pages

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Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Nellis, Gregory F. & Reindl, Douglas T. August 30, 2004.

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This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 32 times , with 5 in the last month . More information about this report can be viewed below.

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Description

This project investigated the economic viability of using water as the refrigerant in a 1000-ton chiller application. The most attractive water cycle configuration was found to be a flash-intercooled, two-stage cycle using centrifugal compressors and direct contact heat exchangers. Component level models were developed that could be used to predict the size and performance of the compressors and heat exchangers in this cycle as well as in a baseline, R-134a refrigeration cycle consistent with chillers in use today. A survey of several chiller manufacturers provided information that was used to validate and refine these component models. The component models were integrated into cycle models that were subsequently used to investigate the life-cycle costs of both an R-134a and water refrigeration cycle. It was found that the first cost associated with the water as a refrigerant cycle greatly exceeded the savings in operating costs associated with its somewhat higher COP. Therefore, the water refrigeration cycle is not an economically attractive option to today's R-134a refrigeration system. There are a number of other issues, most notably the requirements associated with purging non-condensable gases that accumulate in a direct contact heat exchanger, which will further reduce the economic viability of the water cycle.

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2.1 MB pages

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OSTI as DE00833361

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  • Other Information: PBD: 30 Aug 2004

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  • Report No.: DOE/OR22764/611-10080-01
  • Grant Number: FC05-99OR22674
  • DOI: 10.2172/833361 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 833361
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc785319

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • August 30, 2004

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • June 13, 2016, 2:42 p.m.

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Brandon F. Lachner, Jr.; Nellis, Gregory F. & Reindl, Douglas T. The Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Impact of Cycle Modifications on Commercial Viability, report, August 30, 2004; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785319/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.