Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

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Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, ... continued below

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976 Kilobytes pages

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Ji, Hantao; Fox, William; Pace, David & Rappaport, H.L. May 13, 2004.

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Description

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

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976 Kilobytes pages

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INIS; OSTI as DE00827940

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  • Other Information: PBD: 13 May 2004

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  • Report No.: PPPL-3953
  • Grant Number: AC02-76CH03073
  • DOI: 10.2172/827940 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 827940
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc785057

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • May 13, 2004

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • June 10, 2016, 8:17 p.m.

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Ji, Hantao; Fox, William; Pace, David & Rappaport, H.L. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium, report, May 13, 2004; Princeton, New Jersey. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc785057/: accessed August 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.