Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

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Description

In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other ... continued below

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62 pages

Creation Information

Fruehan, Richard J. & Misra, Siddhartha January 15, 2005.

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Description

In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the slag thickness. The model predictions are based on mathematical and empirical evidence which are derived from thermodynamic and kinetic fundamental principles.

Physical Description

62 pages

Notes

OSTI as DE00840933

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  • Other Information: PBD: 15 Jan 2005

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  • Report No.: NONE
  • Grant Number: FC36-97ID13554
  • DOI: 10.2172/840933 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 840933
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc784684

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  • January 15, 2005

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • July 25, 2016, 7:10 p.m.

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Fruehan, Richard J. & Misra, Siddhartha. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations, report, January 15, 2005; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc784684/: accessed August 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.