Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers Page: 4 of 10
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The total cost for this particular design is ~$1.75B (excluding neutralized drift
compression and final focus magnets - expected to be small), which is significantly less than the
$2.8B for the RPD driver. Figure 2 shows how this cost scales with the number of modules. A
smaller number would be better, but target symmetry and pulse shaping will likely require the 24
modules (48 pulses) used in this example. Figure 3 shows the scaling with ion mass. Clearly
lower mass ions, with corresponding low final ion energy (scales as A), are more attractive. The
key then is to develop the ability to do pulse compression and focusing of these high current, low
mass ions. Neutralized drift compression is the chosen approach coupled with either plasma
channel (assisted pinch) or compensated neutralized ballistic focusing [6,7].
3. Solenoid/Quadrupole Modules
Since quad focusing becomes more efficient with increasing ion energy, we next consider
the option of using solenoid magnets at the start of the accelerator modules and then switching to
quad focusing at some higher energy to be optimized. Figure 4 shows the results of the 32-
module driver. Plotted are the cost of the injector (constant), solenoid region, quad region and
total as a function of the solenoid-to-quad transition energy (TsQ). The benefits of solenoids at
lower energy are evident as the total cost decreases with increasing transition energy. The
optimal point at which to switch to quads is ~ 120 MeV, but the driver cost is quite insensitive to
TSQ between ~100 MeV and the final ion energy of 200 MeV. That is a half-solenoid, half-quad
module is comparable in cost to an all solenoid module.
A variation of this architecture is to combine a single beam solenoid section at the start
followed by a multi-beam quad region beyond TSQ. The feasibility of splitting the beam while
maintaining adequate beam quality is uncertain. Also, if a mask with multiple holes is used for
Meier / F.I-05
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Meier, W.R. & Logan, B.G. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers, article, July 27, 2004; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc783052/m1/4/: accessed July 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.