Electron-cloud build-up in hadron machines

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The first observations of electron-proton coupling effect for coasting beams and for long-bunch beams were made at the earliest proton storage rings at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in the mid-60's [1]. The effect was mainly a form of the two-stream instability. This phenomenon reappeared at the CERN ISR in the early 70's, where it was accompanied by an intense vacuum pressure rise. When the ISR was operated in bunched-beam mode while testing aluminum vacuum chambers, a resonant effect was observed in which the electron traversal time across the chamber was comparable to the bunch spacing [2]. This ... continued below

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Furman, M.A. August 9, 2004.

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The first observations of electron-proton coupling effect for coasting beams and for long-bunch beams were made at the earliest proton storage rings at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in the mid-60's [1]. The effect was mainly a form of the two-stream instability. This phenomenon reappeared at the CERN ISR in the early 70's, where it was accompanied by an intense vacuum pressure rise. When the ISR was operated in bunched-beam mode while testing aluminum vacuum chambers, a resonant effect was observed in which the electron traversal time across the chamber was comparable to the bunch spacing [2]. This effect (''beam-induced multipacting''), being resonant in nature, is a dramatic manifestation of an electron cloud sharing the vacuum chamber with a positively-charged beam. An electron-cloud-induced instability has been observed since the mid-80's at the PSR (LANL) [3]; in this case, there is a strong transverse instability accompanied by fast beam losses when the beam current exceeds a certain threshold. The effect was observed for the first time for a positron beam in the early 90's at the Photon Factory (PF) at KEK, where the most prominent manifestation was a coupled-bunch instability that was absent when the machine was operated with an electron beam under otherwise identical conditions [4]. Since then, with the advent of ever more intense positron and hadron beams, and the development and deployment of specialized electron detectors [5-9], the effect has been observed directly or indirectly, and sometimes studied systematically, at most lepton and hadron machines when operated with sufficiently intense beams. The effect is expected in various forms and to various degrees in accelerators under design or construction. The electron-cloud effect (ECE) has been the subject of various meetings [10-15]. Two excellent reviews, covering the phenomenology, measurements, simulations and historical development, have been recently given by Frank Zimmermann [16,17]. In this article we focus on the mechanisms of electron-cloud buildup and dissipation for hadronic beams, particularly those with very long, intense, bunches.

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  • Report No.: LBNL--56109
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • DOI: 10.2172/860898 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 860898
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc782171

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  • August 9, 2004

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  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • Sept. 21, 2017, 7:10 p.m.

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Furman, M.A. Electron-cloud build-up in hadron machines, report, August 9, 2004; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc782171/: accessed November 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.