Flow of two-dimensional liquid metal jet in a strong magnetic field. Page: 4 of 66
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Liquid metal free-surface flows offer the potential to solve the lifetime issues limiting
solid surface designs for tokamak reactors by eliminating the problems of erosion and thermal
stresses , . They also provide the possibility of absorbing impurities and possibly helium for
removal outside of the plasma chamber. In the US ALPS divertor concept this role is fulfilled by
a curtain of liquid metal jets .
One of the most important problems for the liquid-metal divertors is the
magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) interaction. When a liquid metal flows in a magnetic field,
electric currents are induced. These currents in turn interact with the magnetic field and the
resulting electromagnetic force induces a high MHD pressure drop and significant
nonuniformities of the velocity profile. Although some experimental and theoretical work on the
MHD jet flows has been performed, many issues still need to be resolved (see a review in ).
Among the most important ones are the effects of nonuniform magnetic fields, inertia, surface
tension, and gravity on both the jet cross-section and trajectory.
The main aim of this paper is to study a combined effect of surface tension, gravity,
inertia and a transverse nonuniform magnetic field on the steady jet flow. As an initial step a two-
dimensional flow is considered (Fig. 1). Thus the flow geometry may be thought of that of a
curtain, which is widely used in coating flows  (Fig. 2). The assumption of two-dimensionality
means that the flow is confined laterally by two perfectly conducting sidewalls. Away from the
immediate vicinity of the sidewalls the flow is two-dimensional (cf. ).
The flow also approximates that in an axisymmetric, vertical curtain in a radial, horizontal
magnetic field (Fig. 3), which may be placed along the perimeter of the bottom of a tokamak. If
the radius of such a curtain, R*, is much higher than the curtain thickness, a*, the effects of the
azimuthal curvature may be neglected and the flow in an azimuthal cross-section may be
It should be emphasized that as far as divertors for tokamaks are concerned, the jets are
likely to have a finite cross-section, and that all the solid walls are either insulating or have a
finite conductivity. Thus this particular model flow has its limitations in terms of direct
applicability to real divertor flows. In such flows, however, nonlinear effects are difficult to
analyse. In contrast, the geometry studied here presents a unique opportunity to get an assessment
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Reed, C. B. & Molokov, S. Flow of two-dimensional liquid metal jet in a strong magnetic field., report, November 4, 2002; Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc781276/m1/4/: accessed February 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.