Ultrasonic Concentration in a Line-Driven Cylindrical Tube

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The fractionation of particles from their suspending fluid or noninvasive micromanipulation of particles in suspension has many applications ranging from the recovery of valuable reagents from process flows to the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices. Techniques based on size, density, solubility, or electromagnetic properties exist for fulfilling these needs, but many particles have traits that preclude their use such as small size, neutral buoyancy, or uniform electromagnetic characteristics. While separation by those techniques may not be possible, often compressibility differences exist between the particle and fluid that would allow fractionation by acoustic forces. The potential of acoustic separation is known, but ... continued below

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Goddard, G.R. December 15, 2004.

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The fractionation of particles from their suspending fluid or noninvasive micromanipulation of particles in suspension has many applications ranging from the recovery of valuable reagents from process flows to the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices. Techniques based on size, density, solubility, or electromagnetic properties exist for fulfilling these needs, but many particles have traits that preclude their use such as small size, neutral buoyancy, or uniform electromagnetic characteristics. While separation by those techniques may not be possible, often compressibility differences exist between the particle and fluid that would allow fractionation by acoustic forces. The potential of acoustic separation is known, but due to inherent difficulties in achieving and maintaining accurate alignment of the transduction system, it is rarely utilized. The objective of this project is to investigate the use of structural excitation as a potentially efficient concentration/fractionation method for particles in suspension. It is demonstrated that structural excitation of a cylindrically symmetric cavity, such as a tube, allows non-invasive, fast, and low power concentration of particles suspended in a fluid. The inherent symmetry of the system eliminates the need for careful alignment inherent in current acoustic concentration devices. Structural excitation distributes the acoustic field throughout the volume of the cavity, which also significantly reduces temperature gradients and acoustic streaming in the fluid; cavitation is no longer an issue. The lowest-order coupled modes of a long cylindrical glass tube and fluid-filled cavity, driven by a line contact, are tuned, via material properties and aspect ratio, to achieve a coupled dipolar vibration of the system, shown to generate efficient concentration of particles to the central axis of the tube. A two dimensional elastodynamic model of the system was developed and subsequently utilized to optimize particle concentration within the system. The effects of tubing, fluid, and particle material properties, tube geometry, fluid flow, and tube length on the structural excitation and consequently power requirements and concentration quality within the tube were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Limitations of the method are discussed, as well as ways to minimize or compensate for deleterious effects. Finally a preliminary demonstration of the efficacy of acoustic concentration is presented.

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  • Report No.: LA-14182-T
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-36
  • DOI: 10.2172/836139 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 836139
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc781072

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  • December 15, 2004

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  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • Sept. 21, 2017, 9:11 p.m.

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Goddard, G.R. Ultrasonic Concentration in a Line-Driven Cylindrical Tube, thesis or dissertation, December 15, 2004; Los Alamos, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc781072/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.