RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Page: 23 of 28
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pQf (t e-it - c eit , + pQf (t e-it - c eit
pL1(= _ --Cse x -e-zd
(1-e-t) o (1-e-'t)
sc J x(z)edz = co
Conversions from timber volume to total carbon content (x(z)) in equations (8) and (9) are
based on the conversion factors used by van Kooten et al. (2000). This conversion process
involves estimating total above-ground biomass and root biomass using a set of hardwood- and
softwood-specific biomass factors, and then converting total biomass to carbon content. Given
the difficulty of assessing soil carbon sequestration rates over the life of a stand, and across
rotations, we focus on the carbon held in standing timber and the roots.
Results and Discussion
Calculated carbon payments required for a minimal level of profitability (Table 5) range
from $0 per ton per year in white pine plantations with low to moderate interest rates and
moderate to high productivity levels (where LEVs already are greater than zero), to $9.77 per ton
per year for white pines in situations with a high interest rate and low productivity. Interestingly,
neither forest type (white pine or mixed hardwoods) shows uniform dominance over the other in
terms of requiring the lowest (or highest) carbon payment. On poor-quality sites, required
carbon payments are higher for white pines than for mixed hardwoods, whereas on higher-
quality sites, required carbon payments to achieve minimal profitability are lower for white pine.
These findings are a consequence of differing relative growth rates between pines and
hardwoods (which are dependent upon site quality), and rotation length (where hardwoods carry
higher volumes of timber and carbon longer before starting the next rotation).
Carbon payments required for full reimbursement of conversion costs (Table 6) are
somewhat higher than those required for providing minimal profitability, ranging from under $1
per ton per year for mixed hardwoods on high-quality sites with a low interest rate to almost $11
per ton per year for white pines grown on poor-quality sites in situations with high alternative
rates of return. In this case, the required carbon payments for mixed hardwoods are uniformly
lower that those found for white pines. The greater gap between the LEV when the landowner
pays site conversion costs and the LEV when the mine operator pays the costs is apparently
better mitigated by holding carbon volumes over a greater length of time, as occurs with the
mixed hardwood scenarios.
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Burger, James A.; Galbraith, J.; Fox, T.; Amacher, G.; Sullivan, J. & Zipper, C. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, report, November 29, 2004; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc780576/m1/23/: accessed April 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.